Iran is located in the Northern Hemisphere between 25° and 40° latitudes and between 44 and 63 degrees east longitudes. The total area of the country is 1,648,195 million square kilometers. The world’s largest lake, the Caspian Sea, is located in the north and the Persian Gulf is located in the south of the country. The overall climatic condition of the country is temperate, although there are many microclimates with wide climate diversity throughout the country.
The agriculture sector in Iran has been viewed as a fundamental contributor to the economy of the country. Currently, agriculture provide 25% of Iran’s GNP, 27% of employment and 85% of food demand satisfaction, as well as a large capacity for export of several agricultural and horticultural commodities. Horticulture is one of the most important agriculture industries in Iran. In addition, Iran enjoys specific geographical conditions such as benefiting from approximately 250 sunny days per year, the capacity for cultivation of more than 400 agricultural and horticultural crops throughout the country, and dramatic climate diversity. As a whole, these features make it possible to produce high quality of various agricultural and horticultural crops, e.g. Iran’s horticulture sector consists of 2 million ha orchards with annual production of more than 15 million tons of fruit. In addition of 800,000 ha of vegetable crops, strength floriculture industry as well as medicinal plants, Iran is a rich country in native germplasm for various horticultural crops. The quality of some Iranian products, especially dates, pistachios, figs and pomegranates, for which the country holds first position in the world.
Therefore, Iran has a good potential for increasing both the quality and quantity of horticultural crops to provide the world’s horticultural markets with a wide diversity of fruits and other horticultural crops.